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相机镜头光学中的一些疑难问题的解释
发表时间:2017-11-19

1、变焦和对焦有什么区别?

变焦就是改变镜头的焦距(准确说是像距),以改变拍摄的视角,也就是通常所说的把被摄体拉近或推远。例如18-55mm和70-200mm镜头就是典型的变焦镜头。焦距越长,视角越窄

DUIJIAOTONGCHANGZHIDIAOZHENGJINGPIANZUHEDIPIAN(CHUANGANQIPINGMIAN)ZHIJIANDEJULI,CONGERSHIBEISHEWUZAICCD/CMOSSHANGCHENGDEXIANGQINGXI。

WOMENTONGCHANGSHUODE“DIAOJIAO”YIBANZHI“DUIJIAO”。YOUXIERENRENWEIDINGJIAOJINGTOUBUNENGDIAOJIAODESHUOFASHICUOWUDE。

 

2、为什么镜头的最大光圈处通常成像不佳,或者说“成像比较肉”?

ZHUIQIUCHENGXIANGDERUILIYINGGAISHISUOYOUJINGTOUDEZHUIQIU。JINGTOUDEGUANGQUANZHIYIBANCONGF1.2 - F32BUDENG,LIRUF1.8 - F16,DUIYUPUTONGDEDANFANJINGTOULAISHUO,TONGCHANGCHENGXIANGZUIRUILIDEGUANGQUANZHISHIF5.6HUOZHEF8,WEISHENMENI?ZHEISHEJIDAO2GEGAINIAN,YIGESHIQIUCHA、YIGESHIYANSHE。

衍射:超小光圈处影响锐利度的因素。

YANSHE(diffraction)SHIZHIBOYUDAOZHANGAIWUSHIPIANLIYUANLAIZHIXIANCHUANBODEWULIXIANXIANG。ZAIJINGDIANWULIXUEZHONG,BOZAICHUANGUOXIAFENG、XIAOKONGHUOYUANPANZHILEIDEZHANGAIWUHOUHUIFASHENGBUTONGCHENGDUDEWANSANCHUANBO。

YUZHIXIANGGUANDEGAINIANYOUAILIBAN、RUILIPANJU,GANXINGQUDEKEYIZIXINGSOUSUO,ZAICIBUZAIZHANKAI。

球差:大光圈处影响锐利度的因素。

WOMENTONGCHANGKANDAODETOUJINGCHENGXIANGDEJIANHUATUZHONG,PINGXINGGUANGTONGGUOTOUJINGYIHOUHUIJUYUYIDIAN,ZHEIDIANJIAOZUOJIAODIAN,QISHIZHENSHIDEQINGKUANGBINGFEIRUCI。RUXIATUSUOSHI:

GUANGXIANJIRANBUNENGWANMEIHUIJU,YEJIUBUKENENGCHANSHENGRUILIDECHENGXIANG。DANGGUANGQUANDA(GUANGQUANFZHIXIAO)DESHIHOU,TOUJINGJIESHOUGUANGDEYUANMIANHENDA,YUSHIGUANGXIANDEHUIJUCHUHUIFEICHANGFENSAN,ZAOCHENGCHENGXIANGBURUILI。DANGGUANGQUANSUOXIAODESHIHOU,TOUJINGJIESHOUGUANGDEYUANMIANHENXIAO,ZHEISHIHOUGUANGXIANJINGGUOTOUJINGYIHOU,HUIJUCHUXIANGDUILAISHUOGENGJIZHONGYIXIE,ZHEIYANGCHENGXIANGYEJIUGENGJIARUILILE。

DANGRANYIBANLAISHUODUIJIAOBUHUIFEICHANGZHUNQUE,GUANGQUANXIAODESHIHOUJINGSHENGENGSHEN,YEHUIXIANDEGENGRUILI,DANZHEISHIHOUHUALE。

DANGRAN,DUIYUSHIJIDEJINGTOULAISHUO,JINGTOUNEIBUDEJINGPIANSHIHENFUZADE,KENENGYOUJIPIANSHENZHISHIJIPIANJINGPIAN,YOUXIEJINGPIANDECAIZHIHAIJIAOWEIANGGUI,LIRUYINGSHI,TAMENDEZHUYAOZUOYONGQISHIJIUSHIGAISHANJINGTOUDEGUANGXUESUZHI,XIAOZHENGGEZHONGQIUCHA、HUICHA、SESAN、JIBIANDENGDENG。

LIRUEF 200mm f/2L IS USMJINGTOU:

3、为什么工业领域绝口不提ISO这个参数?

做工业机器视觉的工程师一般都知道光圈、快门(曝光时间),但你要问他什么是ISO,他多半不知道。工业机器视觉领域有没有ISO这个参数呢?有的,只不过换了个名字,叫做gain(增益),这个参数一般没人调它,一般也不用调。

GUANGQUAN、KUAIMENSHIJIAN、ISOSHIQUDEHESHIPUGUANGDESANJIAMACHE,SANZHEHUXIANGHEZUOYEHUXIANGZHIYUE。ISOTONGCHANGQUZHIWEI100-3200。

TONGCHANGISOYUEGAO,XIANGJIGANYINGGUANGDENENGLIYUEQIANG,XIANGYINGDEZAODIANYEYUEDUO,HUAZHIYEYUECHA。DUIYUMEIYIGESHEYINGSHILAISHUO,JUEDADUOSHUQINGKUANGXIA,TADOUXIWANGBAISOGUDINGZAI100,YINWEIZHEIKEYIHUODEZUICHUNJINGDEHUAMIAN,DANZHEIJIHUSHIBUKENENGDE。YINWEIZAIANGUANGHUANJINGXIA,ISOTAIDI,ZHINENGQIANGXINGDIAODAGUANGQUAN,DANSHIGUANGQUANSHIYOUXIANDE,YINCIZHINENGZENGJIAKUAIMENSHIJIAN,DANSHIKUAIMENSHIJIANYIZHANG,SHOUCHIPAISHEBIRANHUPIAN。

DANSHIZAIGONGYELINGYUYIBANBUCUNZAIZHEIGEWENTI(HUOZHESHUOZHEIGEWENTISHICIYAOWENTI),YISHIYINWEIGONGYEXIANGJIYIBANBUDONG,PUGUANGSHIJIANHENZHANGYEBUHUIHUPIAN,LINGWAI,GONGYESHIJUESHEBEIGUANGYUANZIDAI,JIHUBUCUNZAIANGUANGHUANJING。

 

4、为什么是光源的亮度越高越好?

GAOLIANGDUGUANGYUANZHISHAOYOUZHEIXIEHAOCHU:GUANGYUANLIANGDUGAO,KUAIMENSHIJIANJIUNENGJIANGXIALAI,YOUKENENGKEYITIGAOCAITUSUDU;QICIGUANGYUANLIANGDUGAO,KEYIDADAJIANQINGHUANJINGZAGUANGDEYINGXIANG;LINGWAI,GUANGYUANLIANGDUGAO,KEYIJIANGGUANGQUANSUOXIAO,ERTONGCHANGSUOXIAOGUANGQUANKEYIDEDAOGENGRUILIDEHUAMIANHEGENGDADEJINGSHEN,ZHEIXIEDUIYUJIQISHIJUEXITONGLAISHUOSHIJIWEIZHONGYAODE。SUOYIXUANZEGUANGYUANDESHIHOU,GUANGYUANLIANGDUYUEGAOYUEHAO。

 

5、什么是单颗像素质量?

DANKEXIANGSUZHIDESHICHUANGANQISHANGDEYIKEXIANGSU,DANKEXIANGSUZHILIANGTONGCHANGZHIJIEHEXIANGSUKELIDEDAXIAOYOUGUAN。LIRUYOUDEXIANGJIDEXIANGSUKELISHI5um × 5um,ERHENDUOSHOUJIDEXIANGSUKELIDAXIAOSHI1.12um × 1.12um,HUOZHE1.3um × 1.3um,ZHEIGESHUZHIYUEDA,BIAOMINGDANKEXIANGSUZHILIANGYUEHAO。

ZHUYAOYUANYINSHI,XIANGSUZHIJIANCUNZAIDIANXUNGANRAO,XIANGSUKELIYUEXIAO,NEIMEXIANGDANGYUXIANGLINXIANGSUDEJIANJUYUEXIAO,NEIMEYUERONGYICHANSHENGXIANGHUGANRAO,DAILAIDEJIEGUOSHIHUAZHICHUNJINGDUDEXIAJIANG。

HAOBIYIGEXIAOGUANGCHANGYOU1000GEDAMAZAITIAOGUANGCHANGWU,MEIGERENZHIFENDAO1㎡DEKONGJIAN,ZHEIMEJIDAMAMENHENKENENGYAOGANJIA,DANSHIRUGUOZHIYOU10GEDAMAZAITIAOGUANGCHANGWU,NEIMEJIUKUANCHANGSHUFUDUOLE,SHUOBUDINGTIAOWANGUANGCHANGWUHAIKEYIBAI3ZHANGZHUOZIDADADOUDIZHU,DANGRANSHENGXIAYIGEKEYIDENGLUNHUAN。


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